The primary tool of many aphorisms is metaphor , or having one thing stand in for something else. Take, for example, the aphorism “if the shoe fits, wear it.” In this case, shoe is a metaphor for all sorts of things – jobs, partners, opportunities, or anything else that might “fit” in a general sense. Similarly, take the Einstein quotation from sectopn II. He’s not literally talking about fish, but rather using fish as a metaphor for all people, who have a variety of skills. Of course, there are some aphorisms that are simple statements of truth without any metaphors.
The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others'. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.