The tensions soon blew up into a schism. The industrial unions were expelled from the AFL in the mid-1930s, taking more than four million unionists into the new, rival Congress of Industrial Organizations. These industrial groups were more militant than traditional craft unions. They were also more inclusive—many welcomed Black workers, women, and immigrants into their ranks. They kicked off a period of hyper-growth for American unions. Early in 1937, General Motors agreed to recognize the CIO United Auto Workers. By March, the president of . Steel, Myron Taylor, was convinced that the GM concession meant "complete industrial organization was inevitable." 23
In 1838, Jenkin (1927) estimates that roughly 5,000 children were employed in the metal mines of Cornwall and by 1842 the returns from The First Report show as many as 5,378 children and youth worked in the mines. In 1838 Lemon collected data from 124 tin, copper and lead mines in Cornwall and found that 85% employed children. In the 105 mines that employed child labor, children comprised from as little as 2% to as much as 50% of the work force with a mean of 20% (Lemon, 1838). According to Jenkin the employment of children in copper and tin mines in Cornwall began to decline by 1870 (1927, 309).